This Day in the Law
June 18

Egypt Declared a Republic (1953)

On June 18, 1953, Egypt declared itself a Republic and abolished its long-standing monarchy.

Egyptian civilization dates back more than 6,000 years. For example, in 3150 B.C., King Menes, unified Egypt and created a series of kingships that lasted over 3,000 years. Some of the world’s most well-known pharaohs, including Tutankhamun (i.e. King Tut) and Ramesses II ruled during that period. The last ruler from the Ptolemaic Egyptian line ended with Cleopatra VII’s death in 30 B.C. She famously committed suicide with her lover Marc Antony, the Roman ruler, in Alexandria, Egypt.

On 18 June 1953, General Muhammad Naguib declared Egypt a Republic acting as its first President. However, less than one year later Gamal Abdel Nasser forced Naguib to resign from office. Nasser had acted as the true organizer of Egypt’s transition into a Republic. Some years later, in 1967, Anwar Sadat succeeded Nasser and pledged allegiance to the United States over the Soviet Union during the height of the Cold War.

In 1981, Sadat was assassinated in Cairo, Egypt, after he had made a historic peace treaty to try and create better relations between the Arab nations. Hosni Mubarak succeeded Sadat as President. Egypt borders the Mediterranean Sea, Gaza Strip, Israel, the Red Sea, and the Sudan. Egypt is also one of the most populated countries in Africa with over 77 million inhabitants since last count.

Today, Egypt runs a parliamentary representative government and continues to maintain diplomatic relations with the United States.